Types of water pollution, objectives and standards. Water quality criteria. Natural water quality. Sources of water pollution, point and non-point sources. Water quality monitoring, schedules, data generation, quality assurance, data validation, method development and evaluation. Grab, integrated, composite sampling, preservation of samples, expression of results. Fundamentals of Chemistry in water and waste water Quality characterisation. Importance of quantitive measurements. Standard methods of measurements, volumetric, gravimetric, colorimetric techniques. Physical methods of analysis, turbidimetry Nephlometry. Optical methods of measurement, potentiometry, Chromatography, Spectroscopy. Measurement of turbidity, color, pH, Acidity Alkalinity, Hardness, Chloride and Chlorine residuals, dissolved oxygen, B.O.D., C.O.D., Nitrogen in various forms, solids, Fe and Mn, Trace contaminants phosphorus as phosphates, sulphur as sulphates, fluorides, oil and grease, volatile acids. Biological and Bacteriological parameters, Phytoplankton, Zooplankton, indicator organisms. MPN, MF methods of coliform and Streptococcus measurements. River and Lake pollution. Water quality indices. Case histories of ongoing National Conservation programmes.
(a) Measurement of the Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Total Suspended Solids (TSS) and Total Solids (TS) in water sample. (b) Determination of Chlorides, Total Hardness, Calcium and Magnesium Hardness of the water sample. (c) Determination of Alkalinity and acidity of water sample. (d) Determination of Total Phosphorus. (e) Bacteriological Examination for Total Coliform, Faecal Coliform etc. of sewage and water